Furniture industry in the EU. Historical knowledge of Greek furniture is derived from various sources, including literature , terracotta , sculptures, statuettes, and painted vases. Sales share of IKEA from to , by region. Cosmetics Industry in the U.
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Discount is only valid when used with your TJX Rewards credit card. See coupon for details. See Rewards Program Terms for details. Our stores are where the magic happens. Go finding at HomeGoods near you. Enter zip code, city, or state. Map View List View. One unique outgrowth of post-modern furniture design is a return to natural shapes and textures. The English word furniture is derived from the French word fourniture ,  the noun form of fournir , which means to supply or provide.
The practice of using natural objects as rudimentary pieces of furniture likely dates to the beginning of human civilisation. A range of unique stone furniture has been excavated in Skara Brae , a Neolithic village in Orkney , Scotland. The site dates from — BC and due to a shortage of wood in Orkney, the people of Skara Brae were forced to build with stone, a readily available material that could be worked easily and turned into items for use within the household.
Each house shows a high degree of sophistication and was equipped with an extensive assortment of stone furniture, ranging from cupboards, dressers and beds to shelves, stone seats, and limpet tanks.
The stone dresser was regarded as the most important as it symbolically faces the entrance in each house and is therefore the first item seen when entering, perhaps displaying symbolic objects, including decorative artwork such as several Neolithic Carved Stone Balls also found at the site.
Pieces found here include tables and inlaid serving stands. There are also surviving works from the 9th-8th-century BC Assyrian palace of Nimrud. The earliest surviving carpet, the Pazyryk Carpet was discovered in a frozen tomb in Siberia and has been dated between the 6th and 3rd century BC. Civilisation in ancient Egypt began with the clearance and irrigation of land along the banks of the River Nile ,  which began in about BC.
By that time, society in the Nile Valley was already engaged in organized agriculture and the construction of large buildings. Mortar was in use by around BC The inhabitants of the Nile Valley and delta were self-sufficient and were raising barley and emmer an early variety of wheat and stored it in pits lined with reed mats.
During the dynastic period , which began in around BC, Egyptian art developed significantly, and this included furniture design. The use of scarf joints to join two shorter pieces together and form a longer beam was one example of this,  as well as construction of veneers in which low quality cheap wood was used as the main building material, with a thin layer of expensive wood on the surface.
The earliest used seating furniture in the dynastic period was the stool , which was used throughout Egyptian society, from the royal family down to ordinary citizens. Historical knowledge of Greek furniture is derived from various sources, including literature , terracotta , sculptures, statuettes, and painted vases.
In general, Greek tables were low and often appear in depictions alongside klinai. Roman furniture was based heavily on Greek furniture, in style and construction.
In the last few centuries Rome gradually superseded Greece as the foremost culture of Europe, leading eventually to Greece becoming a province of Rome in BC. Roman furniture was constructed principally using wood, metal and stone, with marble and limestone used for outside furniture. The and excavations of Herculaneum and Pompeii revealed Roman furniture, preserved in the ashes of the AD 79 eruption of Vesuvius , to the eighteenth century. In contrast to the ancient civilisations of Egypt, Greece, and Rome, we have comparatively little evidence of furniture from the 5th to the 15th century.
The furniture of the Middle Ages was usually heavy, oak , and ornamented with carved designs. Along with the other arts, the Italian Renaissance of the fourteenth and fifteenth century marked a rebirth in design, often inspired by the Greco-Roman tradition. A similar explosion of design, and renaissance of culture in general occurred in Northern Europe, starting in the fifteenth century. The seventeenth century, in both Southern and Northern Europe, was characterized by opulent, often gilded Baroque designs that frequently incorporated a profusion of vegetal and scrolling ornament.
Starting in the eighteenth century, furniture designs began to develop more rapidly. Although there were some styles that belonged primarily to one nation, such as Palladianism in Great Britain or Louis Quinze in French furniture , others, such as the Rococo and Neoclassicism were perpetuated throughout Western Europe.
During the eighteenth century, the fashion was set in England by the French art. In the beginning of the century Boulle. In this era, most of the furniture had metal and enamelled decorations in it and some of the furniture was covered in inlays of marbles lapis lazuli, and porphyry and other stones.
By mid-century this Baroque style was displaced by the graceful curves, shining ormolu , and intricate marquetry of the Rococo style, which in turn gave way around to the more severe lines of Neoclassicism , modeled after the architecture of ancient Greece and Rome. The nineteenth century is usually defined by concurrent revival styles , including Gothic , Neoclassicism, Rococo, and the EastHaven Movement.
The design reforms of the late century introduced the Aesthetic movement and the Arts and Crafts movement. Art Nouveau was influenced by both of these movements. This design was in many ways rooted in necessity and emphasizes both form and materials. Early American [ vague ] chairs and tables are often constructed with turned spindles and chair backs often constructed with steaming to bend the wood.
Wood choices tend to be deciduous hardwoods with a particular emphasis on the wood of edible or fruit bearing trees such as cherry or walnut. The first three-quarters of the twentieth century is often seen as the march towards Modernism.
Postmodern design, intersecting the Pop art movement, gained steam in the s and 70s, promoted in the 80s by groups such as the Italy-based Memphis movement. Transitional furniture is intended to fill a place between Traditional and Modern tastes.
Great efforts from individuals, governments, and companies has led to the manufacturing of products with higher sustainability known as Ecodesign. This new line of furniture is based on environmentally friendly design. Its use and popularity are increasing each year. One unique outgrowth of post-modern furniture design is Live edge , heralding a return to natural shapes and textures within the home. Asian furniture has a quite distinct history.
The traditions out of India , China , Pakistan , Indonesia Bali and Java and Japan are some of the best known, but places such as Korea , Mongolia , and the countries of South East Asia have unique facets of their own.
The use of uncarved wood and bamboo and the use of heavy lacquers are well known Chinese styles. It is worth noting that Chinese furniture varies dramatically from one dynasty to the next.
Traditional Japanese furniture is well known for its minimalist style, extensive use of wood, high-quality craftsmanship and reliance on wood grain instead of painting or thick lacquer. Japanese chests are known as Tansu , known for elaborate decorative iron work, and are some of the most sought-after of Japanese antiques. The antiques available generally date back to the Tokugawa and Meiji periods.
This includes carved and sculpted pieces intended as works of art, as well as the styling of seats to indicate social importance, with senior figures or leaders granted the use of specially designed seats.
The simplest form of seat is the chair ,  which is a piece of furniture designed to allow a single person to sit down, which has a back and legs, as well as a platform for sitting. All different types of woods have unique signature marks that can help in easy identification of the type. Both hardwoods and softwoods are used in furniture manufacturing, and each has their own specific uses.
Highest quality wood will have been air dried to rid it of its moisture. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Furniture disambiguation.
The examples and perspective in this article deal primarily with Europe and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject. You may improve this article , discuss the issue on the talk page , or create a new article , as appropriate.
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